Listed below are books received for review over the last two months. Entries include publishing information as well as a description of the book. Unless otherwise stated, the book description is taken from the publisher’s website or the book jacket. Selected titles from this list will be chosen for a full review in forthcoming issues of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Books. Previous books received are available from the links below.
|Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People’s Urban Crime, by Per Olof H. Wikstrom, Dietrich Oberwittler, Kyle Treiber, and Beth Hardie. Oxford, UK; New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 500p.
“Why do certain people commit acts of crime? Why does crime happen in certain places? Presenting an ambitious new study designed to test a pioneering new theory of the causes of crime, Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People’s Urban Crime demonstrates that these questions can only go so far in explaining why crime happens – and, therefore, in preventing it.
Based on the work of the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), Breaking Rules presents an analysis of the urban structure of Peterborough and its relation to young people’s social life. Contemporary sciences state that behaviour is the outcome of an interaction between people and the environments to which they are exposed, and it is precisely that interaction and its relation to young people’s crime involvement that PADS+ explores. Driven by a ground-breaking theory of crime, Situational Action Theory, which aims to explain why people break rules, it implements innovative methods of measuring social environments and people’s exposure to them, involving a cohort of 700 young people growing up in the UK city of Peterborough. It focuses on the important adolescent time window, ages 12 to 17, during which young people’s crime involvement is at its peak, using unique space-time budget data to explore young people’s time use, movement patterns, and the spatio-temporal characteristics of their crime involvement.
Presenting the first study of this kind, both in breadth and detail, with significant implications for policy and prevention, Breaking Rules should not only be of great interest to academic readers, but also to lpolicy-makers and practitioners, interested in issues of urban environments, crime within urban environments, and the role of social environments in crime causation.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Changing Lives, Changing Drug Journeys: Drug Taking Decisions from Adolescence to Adulthood, by Lisa Williams. London; New York: Routledge, 2012. 208p.
“This book describes how a group of young people make decisions about drug taking. It charts the decision making process of recreational drug takers and non-drug takers as they mature from adolescence into young adulthood. With a focus upon their perceptions of different drugs, it situates their decision making within the context of their everyday lives.
Changing lives, changing drug journeys presents qualitative longitudinal data collected from interviewees at age 17, 22 and 28 and tracks the onset of drug journeys, their persistence, change and desistance. The drug journeys and the decision making process which underpins them are analysed by drawing upon contemporary discourses of risk and life course criminology. In doing so, a new theoretical framework is developed to help us understand drug taking decision making in contemporary society. This framework highlights the pleasures and risks that interviewees perceive when making decisions whether or not to take drugs. The ways in which their drug journeys and life journeys intersect and how social relationships and transitions to adulthood facilitate or constrain the decision making process are also explored.
Qualitative longitudinal research of this kind is uncommon yet it provides an invaluable insight into the decision making process of individuals during the life course. The book will, therefore, be of interest to researchers and students from a variety of disciplines including qualitative research methods as well as sociology, criminology, cultural and health studies. It will also be an important resource for professionals working in health promotion, drugs education, harm reduction and treatment.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Corporal Punishment around the World, by Matthew Pate and Laurie A. Gould. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2012. 206p.
“This unique volume provides an insightful research-based overview of corporal punishment as implemented in a variety of venues and cultures. It is the first comprehensive analysis of practices that while often controversial, remain deeply ingrained in human culture.
Corporal Punishment defines what may be humanity’s oldest form of punishment both historically and in its contemporary forms, then looks at how it is currently applied to children, students, the incarcerated, and in religious settings. A series of case studies examines corporal punishment in specific regions of Bolivia, the Bahamas, Nigeria, Singapore, and Saudi Arabia to understand why certain societies have rejected this once universal approach while others continue to accept it, either within limits or without reservation.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Criminal Insurgencies in Mexico and the Americas: The Gangs and Cartels Wage War, edited by Robert J. Bunker. New York: Routledge, 2012. 224p.
“In recent years, the south-western border of the United States has come under increasing pressure from the activities of Mexican narco-insurgents. These insurgents have developed rapidly from beginnings as nebulous gangs into networked cartels that have exposed the porosity of the border. These cartels declare no allegiance to any nation and are engaging in asymmetrical warfare against sovereign states throughout Mexico and in Central America. Within such states, de facto political control is shifting to the cartels in the ‘areas of impunity’ that have emerged.
This book addresses these concerns and focuses on the criminal insurgencies being waged by the gangs and cartels. It is divided into sections on theory, Mexico, and the Americas and contains a number of introductory essays pertaining to this premier security threat to the United States and her allies in the region. Topics covered include criminal and spiritual insurgency, cartel weapons, corruption, feral cities, Los Zetas, politicized gangs, and threat analysis in Central America.” From Publisher’s Website.
|The Criminology of Place: Street Segments and our Understanding of the Crime Problem, by David Weisburd, Elizabeth R. Groff and Sue-Ming Yang. New York: Oxford University Press. 288p.
“The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city’s street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why.
The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Cyberthreats and International Law, by Georg Kerschischnig. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, 2012. 386p.
“This book revolves around the public international law aspects of the destructive use of cyberspace by state actors and non-state actors, encompassing cyberwar, cyberterrorism, and hacktivism, but excluding cybercrime. For the purpose of delimitation, the book also addresses cyberespionage and political activism in cyberspace. Starting with an overview of the technical background, the book explains the vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure. Then, it outlines notable cyberincidents that have occurred so far and analyzes pertinent state practices and policies. Turning to the legal analysis, the book primarily focuses on the contemporary jus ad bellum and jus in bello, exploring whether concepts like the use of force or self-defense are applicable to cyberattacks, despite their lack of physicality; or whether state responsibility and the principles of international humanitarian law are applicable to cyberspace, in particular in the light of an evident civilianization of battlespace in this area. Furthermore, the book encompasses destructive cyberterrorism and puts this into context with human rights aspects of political activism in cyberspace. The book also looks into jurisdictional pitfalls borne in cyberspace. After a brief summary of the research results, the final chapter is dedicated to providing recommendations to the international community, in order to address cyberthreats in a political process.” From Publisher’s Website.
|The Death of the American Death Penalty: States Still Leading the Way, by Larry W. Koch, Colin Wark, and John F. Galliher. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2012. 256p.
“The death penalty has largely disappeared as a national legislative issue and the Supreme Court has mainly bowed out, leaving the states at the cutting edge of abolition politics. This essential guide presents and explains the changing political and cultural challenges to capital punishment at the state level.
As with their previous volume, America Without the Death Penalty (Northeastern, 2002), the authors of this completely new volume concentrate on the local and regional relationships between death penalty abolition and numerous empirical factors, such as economic conditions; public sentiment; the roles of social, political, and economic elites; the mass media; and population diversity. They highlight the recent abolition of the practice in New York, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Illinois; the near misses in New Hampshire, Connecticut, Maryland, and Nebraska; the Kansas rollercoaster rides; and the surprising recent decline of the death penalty even in the deep South.
Abolition of the death penalty in the United States is a piecemeal process, with one state after another peeling off from the pack until none is left and the tragic institution finally is no more. This book tells you how, and why, that will likely happen.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Economic Criteria for Criminalization: Optimizing Enforcement in Case of Environmental Violations, by Katarina Svatikova. The Hague: Intersentia, 2012. 186p.
“Why should criminal law be used to enforce environmental violations? Aren’t administrative sanctions, particularly administrative fines, more efficient to use? From an economic perspective, this book examines the question as to why society should enforce certain violations through criminal law, while others through private or administrative law. The findings of this analysis show that the enforcement through criminal law should be used only in limited circumstances – i.e. when (1) harm is large and/or immaterial and/or diffuse and/or remote; (2) stigma is desired; (3) the probability of detection is low; and (4) the criminal enforcement costs are sufficiently low. Under these circumstances, criminal enforcement seems to be the efficient instrument to use. This framework was applied to the enforcement of environmental violations in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, and the Flemish Region in Belgium. The empirical assessment of these four jurisdictions shows that there is definitely a role for administrative sanctions, which could be a cost-effective instrument to deal with environmental violations. The relevant factors in assessing whether administrative fines are welfare enhancing are the distribution of abatement costs among firms, the marginal enforcement costs, and the probability of detection and sanctioning. The analysis shows that – in order to benefit from having two separate systems of laws, namely the criminal and the administrative – procedural differences should be maintained, since they have an economic justification.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Financial Crime in the 21st Century: Law and Policy, by Nicholas Ryder. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. 352p.
“This book focuses on the financial crime policies adopted by the international community and how these have been implemented in the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Nicholas Ryder also considers the appropriateness of confiscation and forfeiture of the proceeds of crime as well as the financial crime agencies in both jurisdictions and the effectiveness of their sentencing policies towards financial crime. The author recommends a ‘model financial crime policy’ based on a detailed analysis of the measures discussed in this book.
Financial Crime in the 21st Century is aimed at those specializing in the fields of: international financial crime, commercial fraud, corporate and financial crime, money laundering and white-collar crime, amongst others. It is also of great use to undergraduate and postgraduate students undertaking modules within these areas.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Fortress Europe: Dispatches from a Gated Continent, by Matthew Carr. New York: New Press, 2012. 304p.
“On the militarized Turkish-Greek border, Afghan migrants brave minefields to cross into Europe—only to be summarily ejected by Greek border guards. At Ceuta and Melilla, Spanish enclaves in North Africa, migrants are turned back with razor wire and live ammunition. Deportees from the U.K. and France have died of “positional asphyxia” on deportation flights, strapped to chairs, their mouths sealed with tape. In a brilliant and shocking account, Fortress Europe tells the story of how the world’s most affluent region—and history’s greatest experiment with globalization—has become an immigration war zone, where tens of thousands have died in a human rights crisis that has gone largely unnoticed by the U.S. media.
Journalist Matthew Carr brings to life these remarkable human dramas, based on extensive interviews and firsthand reporting from the hot zones of Europe’s immigration battles. Speaking with key European policy makers, police, soldiers on the front lines, immigrant rights activists, and an astonishing range of migrants themselves, Carr offers a lucid account both of the broad issues at stake in the crisis and its exorbitant human costs.” From Publisher’s Website.
|From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy, and Prevention, edited by Rolf Loeber and David P. Farrington. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 416p.
“What makes a juvenile delinquent develop into an adult criminal? What defines-cognitively, developmentally, legally-the transition from juvenile to adult and what determines whether patterns of criminal behavior persist? In most US states and Western nations, legal adulthood begins at age 18. This volume focuses on the period surrounding that abrupt transition (roughly ages 15-29) and addresses what happens to offending careers during it.
Edited by two leading authorities in the fields of psychology and criminology, Transitions from Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime examines why the period of transition is important and how it can be better understood and addressed both inside and outside of the justice system. Bringing together over thirty leading scholars from multiple disciplines in both North America and Europe, this volume asks critical questions about criminal careers and causation, and whether current legal definitions of adulthood accurately reflect actual maturation and development. The volume also addresses the current efficacy of the justice system in addressing juvenile crime and recidivism, why and how juveniles ought to be treated differently from adults, if special legal provisions should be established for young adults, and the effectiveness of crime prevention programs implemented during early childhood and adolescence.
With serious scholarly analysis and practical policy proposals, Transitions from Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime addresses what can be done to ensure that today’s juvenile delinquents do not become tomorrow’s adult criminals.” From Publisher’s Website.
|The Future of Criminology, edited by Rolf Loeber and Brandon C. Welsh. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 336p.
“Criminology is a dynamic and evolving field of study. In recent decades, the study of the causes, development, prevention, and treatment of juvenile delinquency and adult crime has produced many important discoveries. This volume addresses two questions about crucial topics facing criminology – from causation to prevention to public policy: Where are we now? What does the future hold? Rolf Loeber and Brandon C. Welsh lead a team of more than forty top scholars from across the world to present the future of research, policy, and practice in the discipline.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation against Illicit Trade, by Asif Efrat. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 384p.
“From human trafficking to the smuggling of small arms to the looting of antiquities, illicit trade poses significant threats to international order. So why is it so difficult to establish international cooperation against illicit trade? Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder offers a novel, thought-provoking answer to this crucial question.
Conventional wisdom holds that criminal groups are the biggest obstacle to efforts to suppress illicit trade. Contrarily, Asif Efrat explains how legitimate actors, such as museums that acquire looted antiquities, seek to hinder these regulatory efforts. Yet such attempts to evade regulation fuel international political conflicts between governments demanding action against illicit trade and others that are reluctant to cooperate. The book offers a framework for understanding the domestic origins of these conflicts and how the distribution of power shapes their outcome. Through this framework, Efrat explains why the interests of governments vary across countries, trades, and time. In a fascinating empirical analysis, he solves a variety of puzzles: Why is the international regulation of small arms much weaker than international drug control? What led the United States and Britain to oppose the efforts against the plunder of antiquities, and why did they ultimately join these efforts? How did American pressure motivate Israel to tackle sex trafficking? Efrat’s findings will change the way we think about illicit trade, offering valuable insights to scholars, activists, and policymakers.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Just Authority? Trust in the Police in England and Wales, by Jonathan Jackson, Ben Bradford, Betsy Stanko and Katrin Hohl. London; New York: Routledge, 2012. 256p.
“What does it mean to trust the police? What makes the police legitimate in the eyes of the policed? What builds trust, legitimacy and cooperation, and what undermines the bond between police and the public? These questions are central to current debates concerning the relationship between the British police and the public it serves. Yet, in the context of British policing they are seldom asked explicitly, still less examined in depth.
Drawing on psychological and sociological explanatory paradigms, Just Authority? presents a cutting-edge empirical study into public trust, police legitimacy, and people’s readiness to cooperate with officers. It represents, first, the most detailed test to date of Tom Tyler’s procedural justice model attempted outside the United States. Second, it uncovers the social ecology of trust and legitimacy and, third, it describes the relationships between trust, legitimacy and cooperation.
This book contains many important lessons for practitioners, policy-makers and academics. As elsewhere the dominant vision of policing in Great Britain continues to stress instrumental effectiveness: the ‘fight against crime’ will be won by pro-active and even aggressive policing. In line with work from the United States and elsewhere, Just Authority? casts significant doubt on such claims. When people find policing to be unfair, disrespectful and careless of human dignity, not only is trust lost, legitimacy is also damaged and cooperation is withdrawn as a result. Absent such public support, the job of the police is made harder and the avowed objectives of less crime and disorder placed ever further from reach.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Justice Provocateur: Jane Tennison and Policing in Prime Suspect, by Gray Cavender and Nancy C. Jurik. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2012. 174p.
“Justice Provocateur focuses on Prime Suspect, a popular British television film series starring Oscar and Emmy award-winning actress Helen Mirren as fictional London policewoman Jane Tennison. Gray Cavender and Nancy C. Jurik examine the media constructions of justice, gender, and police work in the show, exploring its progressive treatment of contemporary social problems in which women are central protagonists. They argue that the show acts as a vehicle for progressive moral fiction–fiction that gives voice to victim experiences, locates those experiences within a larger social context, transcends traditional legal definitions of justice for victims, and offers insights into ways that individuals might challenge oppressive social and organizational arrangements.
Although Prime Suspect is often seen as a uniquely progressive, feminist-inspired example within the typically more conservative, male-dominated crime genre, Cavender and Jurik also address the complexity of the films’ gender politics. Consistent with some significant criticisms of the films, they identify key moments in the series when Tennison’s character appears to move from a successful woman who has it all to a post-feminist stereotype of a lonely, aging career woman with no strong family or friendship ties. Shrewdly interpreting the show as an illustration of the tensions and contradictions of women’s experiences and their various relations to power, Justice Provocateur provides a framework for interrogating the meanings and implications of justice, gender, and social transformation both on and off the screen.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Kids for Cash: Two Judges, Thousands of Children, and a $2.6 Million Kickback Scheme, by William Ecenbarger. New York: New Press, 2012. 304p.
”When thirteen-year-old Matthew appeared in front of Judge Mark Ciavarella for throwing a piece of steak at his mother’s boyfriend, he was sentenced to seven weeks at PA Child Care, a private, for-profit juvenile detention center in northeastern Pennsylvania. Angelia was fourteen when she and a friend scrawled “Vote for Michael Jackson” on five stop signs. Charged with vandalism and defacing public property, Angelia was sent by Ciavarella to PA Child Care without her epilepsy medication and suffered a grand mal seizure her second night. Fifteen-year-old Charlie, arrested for unknowingly purchasing a stolen motorbike, was convicted of a felony and sent to PA Child Care for six weeks.
Matthew, Angelia, and Charlie are just three children among the thousands who appeared in Ciavarella’s courtroom between 2003 and 2008 and were sent away—often with no attorney present and after only cursory hearings—to a detention facility in which, it later came to light, Ciavarella had a personal financial stake. As Kids for Cash reveals, this miscarriage of justice underscores a multitude of problems with our juvenile justice system, which too often criminalizes standard adolescent behavior, treats adolescents more harshly than if they were adults, and denies them their most fundamental constitutional rights.
William Ecenbarger, a Pulitzer Prize and George Polk Award–winning investigative journalist who covered the case for the Philadelphia Inquirer, now gives us the first book-length account of this shocking story. In the tradition of true-crime legal thrillers from The Executioner’s Song to A Civil Action, Ecenbarger exposes a deeply corrupt and broken system that ruined the lives of many children and ultimately led to the judge’s conviction on charges of racketeering, fraud, tax violations, money laundering, extortion, and bribery. Fastidiously researched and utterly propulsive, Kids for Cash takes us deep inside a profoundly flawed legal system, revealing the twisted and haunting realities of America’s juvenile justice system.” From Publisher’s Website.
|The Law of Superheroes, by James Daily and Ryan Davidson. New York: Gotham Books, 2012. 320p.
“The dynamic duo behind the popular website LawAndTheMultiverse.com breaks down even the most advanced legal concepts for every self-proclaimed nerd.
James Daily and Ryan Davidson—attorneys by day and comic enthusiasts all of the time—have clearly found their vocation, exploring the hypothetical legal ramifications of comic book tropes, characters, and powers down to the most deliciously trivial detail.
The Law of Superheroes asks and answers crucial speculative questions about everything from constitutional law and criminal procedure to taxation, intellectual property, and torts, including:
Engaging, accessible, and teaching readers about the law through fun hypotheticals, The Law of Superheroes is a must-have for legal experts, comic nerds, and anyone who will ever be called upon to practice law in the comic multiverse.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Legitimacy and Compliance in Criminal Justice, edited by Adam Crawford and Anthea Hucklesby. London; New York: Routledge, 2012. 232p.
“Questions of legitimacy and issues of compliance lie at the heart of criminal justice systems and policies. Recent years have seen greater recognition and awareness of the essential role of legitimacy, trust and public confidence in underpinning the effectiveness of criminal justice practices and institutions. As such, experiences and perceptions of legitimacy have direct implications for compliance, whilst securing public compliance remains a pivotal challenge for systems of crime control. Exploring the hitherto neglected links between legitimacy and compliance raises crucial questions about the effectiveness of criminal justice and point to ways in which both elements might be enhanced.
This book brings together leading international scholars to consider a number of connected themes relating to compliance, legitimacy and trust in different areas of criminal justice and social regulation. It presents an inter-disciplinary dialogue and debate that combines insights from criminology, psychology and socio-legal studies drawing together conceptual analysis with empirical research findings in relation to policing, anti-social behaviour interventions, community penalties, electronic monitoring, imprisonment and tax avoidance. In so doing, the book presents advances in theory and conceptual understandings of compliance and legitimacy within systems of crime control.
The contributors highlight the importance of normative and social dimensions to compliance as well as the constructive role played by experiences of procedural fairness and legitimacy in systems of justice. This cutting-edge collection of essays will be invaluable reading for all those interested in thinking critically about the future of criminal justice policies and practices including academics, researchers and criminal justice practitioners.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Life after Death Row: Exonerees’ Search for Community and Identity, by Saundra D. Westervelt and Kimberly J. Cook. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2012. 296p.
“Life after Death Row examines the post-incarceration struggles of individuals who have been wrongly convicted of capital crimes, sentenced to death, and subsequently exonerated.
Saundra D. Westervelt and Kimberly J. Cook present eighteen exonerees’ stories, focusing on three central areas: the invisibility of the innocent after release, the complicity of the justice system in that invisibility, and personal trauma management. Contrary to popular belief, exonerees are not automatically compensated by the state or provided adequate assistance in the transition to post-prison life. With no time and little support, many struggle to find homes, financial security, and community. They have limited or obsolete employment skills and difficulty managing such daily tasks as grocery shopping or banking. They struggle to regain independence, self-sufficiency, and identity.
Drawing upon research on trauma, recovery, coping, and stigma, the authors weave a nuanced fabric of grief, loss, resilience, hope, and meaning to provide the richest account to date of the struggles faced by people striving to reclaim their lives after years of wrongful incarceration.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Lone Wolf Terror and the Rise of Leaderless Resistance, by George Michael. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. 264p.
“On July 22, 2011, Anders Behring Breivik detonated a car bomb in downtown Oslo, Norway. He didn’t stop there, traveling several hours from the city to ambush a youth camp while the rest of Norway was distracted by his earlier attack. That’s where the facts end. But what motivated him? Did he have help staging the attacks? The evidence suggests a startling truth: that this was the work of one man, pursuing a mission he was convinced was just.
If Breivik did indeed act alone, he wouldn’t be the first. Timothy McVeigh bombed a federal building in Oklahoma City based essentially on his own motivations. Eric Robert Rudolph embarked on a campaign of terror over several years, including the Centennial Park bombing at the 1996 Olympics. Ted Kaczynski was revealed to be the Unabomber that same year. And these are only the most notable examples. As George Michael demonstrates in Lone Wolf Terror and the Rise of Leaderless Resistance, they are not isolated cases. Rather, they represent the new way warfare will be conducted in the twenty-first century.
Lone Wolf Terror investigates the motivations of numerous political and ideological elements, such as right-wing individuals, ecoextremists, foreign jihadists, and even quasi-governmental entities. In all these cases, those carrying out destructive acts operate as “lone wolves” and small cells, with little or no connection to formal organizations. Ultimately, Michael suggests that leaderless resistance has become the most common tactical approach of political terrorists in the West and elsewhere.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Looking Beyond Suppression: Community Strategies to Reduce Gang Violence, edited by Erika Gebo and Brenda J. Bond. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.
“This edited book significantly contributes to the knowledge on how to address gang problems from a broad community perspective, which takes into account criminal justice agencies, social service providers, and community leaders, along with police, who have implemented collaborative anti-gang policies and practices. As community-wide efforts become more common, it is increasingly important to investigate effective strategies to address social problems. Beyond Suppression: Community Strategies to Reduce Gang Violence explores a demonstration project of one state’s efforts to reduce gang and youth violence through use of a comprehensive initiative, the Comprehensive Gang Model (CGM). The relevance of the CGM as a conceptual framework to guide gang policy and practice is illustrated throughout the book, and tailored gang reduction strategies derived from that framework and rooted in the ecological constitution of communities are showcased. The chapters highlight implementation strategies employed by various communities using a case study methodology that assists in garnering an in-depth perspective of implementation issues and key dimensions of the CGM. This book answers important questions about how communities operationalize the CGM. The results of these investigations are important for scholars, learners, and practitioners who seek to address gang violence using a customized response.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Mental State Defences in Criminal Law, by Steven Yannoulidis. Aldershot, UK; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012. 202p.
“By presenting an interdisciplinary analysis of various factors which inform mental state defences in criminal law, this book provides several practical and robust reform proposals. Three objectives underpin the suggested reform proposals: first, to ensure that an accused will not be held responsible for involuntary conduct even whilst aware of both the nature and quality of such conduct, second, to provide principled means by which to establish the responsibility of an individual in a state of drug-induced psychosis, and third, to ensure that criminal conduct arising from a state of ‘impaired consciousness’ does not automatically result in an outright acquittal. By exploring appropriate boundaries for the defence of insanity and the doctrine of automatism, this book suggests a consistent and principled approach to the reform of mental state defences. In illustrating the competing demands which must be balanced in order to secure such an approach to the reform of mental state defences, the book will be relevant to all common law countries.” From Publisher’s Website.
|The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Criminal Law, edited by John Deigh and David Dolinko. Oxford, UK; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 544p.
“This is the first comprehensive handbook in the philosophy of criminal law. It contains seventeen original essays by leading thinkers in the field and covers the field’s major topics including limits to criminalization, obscenity and hate speech, blackmail, the law of rape, attempts, accomplice liability, causation, responsibility, justification and excuse, duress, provocation and self-defense, insanity, punishment, the death penalty, mercy, and preventive detention and other alternatives to punishment. It will be an invaluable resource for scholars and students whose research and studies concern philosophical issues in criminal law and criminal law theory.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Law, edited by R.A. Duff and Stuart P. Green. Oxford, UK; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. 530p.
“25 leading contemporary theorists of criminal law tackle a range of foundational issues about the proper aims and structure of the criminal law in a liberal democracy.
The challenges facing criminal law are many. There are crises of over-criminalization and over-imprisonment; penal policy has become so politicized that it is difficult to find any clear consensus on what aims the criminal law can properly serve; governments seeking to protect their citizens in the face of a range of perceived threats have pushed the outer limits of criminal law and blurred its boundaries. To think clearly about the future of criminal law, and its role in a liberal society, foundational questions about its proper scope, structure, and operations must be re-examined. What kinds of conduct should be criminalized? What are the principles of criminal responsibility? How should offences and defences be defined? The criminal process and the criminal trial need to be studied closely, and the purposes and modes of punishment should be scrutinized.
Such a re-examination must draw on the resources of various disciplines-notably law, political and moral philosophy, criminology and history; it must examine both the inner logic of criminal law and its place in a larger legal and political structure; it must attend to the growing field of international criminal law, it must consider how the criminal law can respond to the challenges of a changing world.
Topics covered in this volume include the question of criminalization and the proper scope of the criminal law; the grounds of criminal responsibility; the ways in which offences and defences should be defined; the criminal process and its values; criminal punishment; the relationship between international criminal law and domestic criminal law. Together, the essays provide a picture of the exciting state of criminal law theory today, and the basis for further research and debate in the coming years.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Procedural Justice? Victim Participation in International Criminal Proceedings, by Brianne McGonigle Leyh. The Hague: Intersentia, 2011. 470p.
“In early 2006, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights called for more detailed research into the relevant international standards and national and international practices concerning the role of victims in criminal proceedings. In response to this call and the increased attention paid to victims at international criminal institutions, this study explores the role of victims in international criminal proceedings. As such, the aim of this study is threefold: a) to describe, explain, and clarify the procedural role afforded to victims in international criminal proceedings; b) to evaluate whether the current approaches to victim participation in international criminal proceedings are consistent with human rights standards; and c) to determine the proper scope and content of victim participation in international criminal proceedings. To structure the analysis, the framework focuses on two central concepts, namely the unique characteristics of international criminal proceedings and human rights standards. Broken up into two main parts, the first part of the study covers criminal law theories and the current role afforded to victims in domestic jurisdictions. It further examines the development of their procedural rights both domestically and internationally. The second part of the study then deals exclusively with international criminal justice institutions and the participatory rights afforded to victims therein. Using two case studies – one on the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and the other on the International Criminal Court – the research highlights how these courts have approached the issue of victim participation. The study concludes with general recommendations. The findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of competing rights within international criminal justice and will provide those involved in the shaping of international criminal justice a means through which to view the participatory rights of victims.” From Publisher’s Website.
|The Psychology of Terrorism Fears, by Samuel Justin Sinclair and Daniel Antonius. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. 192p.
“The psychology of terrorism, in its most basic form, is about fear. Although academics continue to debate the meaning of terrorism, the end result for victims of terrorism is very often fear and terror. Many studying the effects of terrorism have focused more exclusively on discrete psychopathological constructs, most of which are clinically based. Ironically, these paradigms fail to acknowledge the primacy of basic fear in the context of terrorism, as well as how fear affects people in both positive and negative ways-above and beyond whether one meets criteria for a clinical disorder.
The purposes of this book are to unpack the complexity of terrorism fears and to present a new paradigm for understanding the psychology of terrorism. As such, this book presents empirical and theoretical frameworks for understanding fear as a dynamic process that motivates and affects people on a myriad of levels, from the individual to society at large. The book also highlights the paradox of how fear can negatively impact people and societies, but also be a central force underlying resilience and post-traumatic growth. Finally, The Psychology of Terrorism Fears discusses how society has changed as a result of terrorism, and specifically, how our own systems for managing terrorism may in fact contribute to fear.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Punishment, Participatory Democracy, and the Jury, by Albert W. Dzur. New York: Oxford University Press. 240p.
“Focusing contemporary democratic theory on the neglected topic of punishment, Punishment, Participatory Democracy, and the Jury argues for increased civic engagement in criminal justice as an antidote to the American penal state. Albert W. Dzur considers how the jury, rather than merely expressing unreflective public opinion, may serve as a participatory institution that gathers and utilizes citizens’ juridical capabilities. In doing so, the book resists trends in criminal justice scholarship that blame increases in penal severity on citizen participation and rejects political theorists’ longstanding skepticism of lay abilities.
Dzur distinguishes constructive citizen involvement that takes responsibility for public problems from a mass politics mobilized superficially around single issues. This more positive view of citizen action, which was once a major justification for the jury trial, is now also manifest in the restorative justice movement, which has incorporated lay people into community boards and sentencing circles. Both jury trials and restorative justice programs, Dzur explains, are examples of rational disorganization, in which lay citizen action renders a process less efficient yet also contributes valuable qualities such as attunement, reflectiveness, and full-bodied communication. While restorative justice programs and participatory policy forums such as citizens’ juries have become attractive to reformers, traditional juries have suffered a steep and troubling decline. Punishment, Participatory Democracy, and the Jury advocates a broader role for jurors in the criminal courts and more widespread use of jury trials.
Though no panacea for a political culture grown too comfortable with criminalization and incarceration, participatory institutional designs that rationally disorganize punishment practices and slow down criminal justice can catalyze civic responsibility and public awareness about the need to find alternative paths forward for America’s broken penal system.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Punitivity International Developments: Vol. 1: Punitiveness – A Global Phenomenon? Ed. by Helmut Kury and Evelyn Shea. Bochum, Germany: Brockmeyer, Verlag, 2011. 440p.
”During the past two decades criminological discussion in Western industrial societies has been increasingly focused on the concept of punitiveness, a concept that is frequently linked to the staggering rise in inmate numbers in the United States from the first half of the 1970 onward, making it the country with the highest prison rate per 100,000 inhabitants in the Western world. Lee sees the development in the United States in connexion with the growing discussion of “fear of crime” during the late 1960s. “Since the late 1960s the fear of crime has progressively become a profoundly engaging field of study for criminologists and other social researchers” (2001, p. 467; see also Hale 1996). The findings of inquiries and opinion polls, which confirmed the presence of such fears among the population, moved the topic to the forefront and it did not take long until it was “discovered” by politicians. This development went hand in hand with increased media reporting on crime related matters, usually concerning spectacular cases, and thus creating in the population a distorted image of the actual extent and nature of crime (see Beckett and Sasson 2004). Some politicians were quick to use this erroneous perception for their own purposes by creating so-called “politics of fear” (see, for instance, for Japan Miyazawa 2008).” From Publisher’s Website.
Kury, Helmut & Shea, Evelyn Punitivity – An Introduction.
I.2. Different Trends in Punitiveness:Kutateladze, Besiki: Measuring State Punitiveness in the United States; Indermaur, David & Roberts, Lynne: Punitiveness in Australia: Current Status, Trends and Strategic Responses; Dijk, Jan Van: Trends in Dutch Prisoner Rates: Regression to the Mean or enduring Exception? Flander, Benjamin & Meško, Gorazd: ‚Punitiveness’ and Penal Trends in Slovenia: On the ‚Shady Side of the Alps’? Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio: Changes in Penal Policy in Finland; Klimke, Daniela, Sack, Fritz & Schlepper, Christina: Stopping the ‘punitive turn’ at the German Border.
I.3. Juvenile Delinquents: A Category Apart? Palermo Fabris, Elisabetta: Juvenile Deviance in Italy. The need for Social Control and for the Tutelage of young Offenders; Wößner, Gunda, Quenzer, Carolin & Vig, David: The Development of Criminal Law in Germany with an Emphasis on Sexual and Juvenile Offenses; Giebel, Stefan Markus, Boxberg, Verena & Hosser, Daniela: Imprisonment and Recidivism of Young Offenders; Özsöz, Figen: German Skinheads Behind Bars – Effects of Penal Sanctions on Ideological Offenders.
|Punitivitiy International Developments. Vol. 2: Insecurity and Punitiveness. Ed. by Helmut Kury and Evelyn Shea. Bochum, Germany: Brockmeyer Verlag, 2011. 606p.
“This book, the second of a three-volume edition of papers by experts from over 20 countries, makes available the results of 19 studies on fear of crime and punitiveness in Western and Eastern Europe, South America, Japan and South Africa. In Part One, the relationships between insecurity, politics and the media are illustrated, and the influence exercised on crime policy by public opinion and media reporting is analyzed. Part Two shows that the results obtained when assessing feelings of insecurity and punitive attitudes depend to a great extent on the methodology used. The concept of punitiveness is a complex one, and the crucial question is to determine what should be measured, and how it should be measured. The reader will find here the results of surveys from Poland, Greece, Spain, Estonia, Costa Rica, Serbia and Croatia. Part Three offers studies of the development of criminal legislation in Turkey, Japan, Russia, France and South Africa. These show a
|Punitivity International Developments. Vol. 3: Punitiveness and Punishment. Edited by Helmut Kury and Evelyn Shea. Bochum, Germany: Brockmeyer Verlag, 2011. 384p.
|Sex Slaves and Serfs: The Dynamics of Human Trafficking in a Small Florida Town, by Erin C. Heil. Boulder, CO: First Forum Press, 2012. 169p.
“Erin Heil explores the global problem of human trafficking in the context of a small Florida town—one typical of the many rural communities that confront modern day slavery in their own backyards.
Drawing on two years of interviews and observation, Heil lays out the dynamics that allow both agricultural and sexual forced labor to flourish. She also highlights community antitrafficking responses. Including the perspectives of traffickers, victims, and community members in one rich portrait, her work ably contributes to the fight against human trafficking at the local, state, and national levels alike.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Special Needs Offenders in Correctional Institutions, edited by Lior Gideon. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2013. 544p.
“Effective treatment and preparation for successful reintegration can be better achieved if the needs and risks of incarcerated offenders are taken into consideration by correctional practitioners and scholars. Special Needs Offenders in Correctional Institutions offers a unique opportunity to examine the different populations behind bars (e.g. chronically and mentally ill, homosexual, illegal immigrants, veterans, radicalized inmates, etc.), as well as their needs and the corresponding impediments for rehabilitation and reintegration. Author Lior Gideon takes a rehabilitative and reiterative approach to discuss and differentiate between the needs of these various categories of inmates, and provides in depth discussions-not available in other correctional texts-about the specific needs, risks and policy recommendations when working with present-day special needs offenders. Each chapter is followed by suggested readings and relevant websites that will enable readers to further enhance understanding of the issues and potential solutions discussed in the chapter. Further, each chapter has discussion questions specifically designed to promote class discussions. The text concludes with a theoretical framework for future policy implications and practices.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy, edited by Michael Pickhardt and Aloys Prinz. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. 208p.
“Issues such as tax evasion and the size and impact of the shadow economy have ranked highly in political and economic policy debates across the globe in recent years. Yet, despite various methodological advances and growing empirical evidence, there are still large areas of interest that have not been explored, or where scientific research efforts are still in their infancy. This timely book addresses such issues from various perspectives in order to demonstrate the extent and scope of tax evasion, the shadow economy and their interaction.
Leading scholars examine recent evidence from theoretical and empirical research on tax compliance and tax evasion, and provide an in-depth analysis of underlying methods. Strategies to fight tax evasion are evaluated and the motivations behind it are explored, as are the impact and size of the shadow economy in Europe. As well as promoting a better understanding of the issues, this book intends to stimulate further debate and, in so doing, broaden the exchange of ideas and concepts.
Comparing and contrasting differences and common elements of both tax evasion and the shadow economy, this unique book will prove a fascinating and enlightening read for scholars of economics in general, and public sector, public choice and Austrian economics more specifically. Professionals in ministries of finance and national offices of statistics, dealing with tax evasion will also find the book to be an illuminating read.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Terrorism and Affordance, edited by Max Taylor and PM Currie. London; New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012. 196p.
“In this groundbreaking work, leading scholars and experts set out to explore the utility of the concept of affordance in the study and understanding of terrorism and political violence. Affordance is a concept used in a variety of fields, from psychology to artificial intelligence, which refers to how the quality of an environment or object allows an individual to perform a specific action. This concept can represent an important element in the process of choice involved in behavior, and is closely related to situational analyses of criminal behavior. In this book, the contributors set out to explore how this concept can be used to study terrorism and, as a result, develop management strategies. Essays discuss such topics as affordance in relation to counterterrorism, technology, cyber-jihad, ideology, and political ecologies. By importing the concept of affordance and a new set of research to the study of terrorism, the authors offer an innovative and original work that challenges and adds to various aspects of situational crime prevention and counterterrorism.”
|Theft of a Nation: Wall Street Looting and Federal Regulatory Colluding, by Gregg Barak. Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 2012. 226p.
“Theft of a Nation presents a powerful criminological examination of Wall Street’s recent financial meltdown and its profound impact on the rest of the country. This provocative book asks why, if the actions of key players on Wall Street and in the government resulted in an economic downturn that harmed millions of Americans and destroyed capital worldwide, no one was held criminally liable for these actions.
Author Gregg Barak provides a basic history of financial regulation and deregulation, as well as a primer on both securities fraud and mass victimization. Using key concepts in victimology and white collar crime, he explores the diverse ways civil and criminal law enforcement responded to the damaging behavior on Wall Street. The book also assesses Wall Street Financial Reform and the Consumer Protection Act of 2010, showing the ways that Americans may still be at risk.
Theft of a Nation is the first comprehensive criminological investigation of the role of Wall Street and the government in the recent financial crisis, asking critical questions about who has been victimized and why.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Virtual Economies and Financial Crime: Money Laundering in Cyberspace, by Clare Chambers-Jones. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA: Edgar Elgar, 2012. 256p.
“Virtual economies and financial crime are ever-growing, increasingly significant facets to banking, finance and anti-money laundering regulations on an international scale. In this pathbreaking and timely book, these two important issues are explored together for the first time in the same place.
The importance of providing legal clarity over jurisdictional matters in cyberspace is an increasing concern for policy makers and regulators, and this book provides a wealth of information on new aspects of cyber law and virtual economics. As such, it will prove essential reading for academics, students, researchers and policy makers across the fields of law generally, and more specifically, financial law and regulation, finance, money and banking, and economic crime.” From Publisher’s Website.
|Where Rivers Meet the Sea: The Political Ecology of Water, by Stephanie C. Kane. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012. 246p.
“Where fresh water appears to be abundant and generally accessible, chronic pollution may be relatively ignored as a public issue. Yet there are those whose lives, livelihoods and traditions are touched directly by the destructive albeit essential relationship between humans and water. In her passionate and persuasively argued Where Rivers Meet the Sea Stephanie Kane compares two cities and nations – Salvador, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina – as she tells the stories of those who organize in the streets, petition the courts, and challenge their governments to implement and enforce existing laws designed to protect springs, lakes, harbours and rivers. Illuminating the complex and distinctive cultural forces in the South Atlantic that shape conflicts and collaborations pertaining to particular waterfront settings, Kane shows the dilemmas, inventiveness and persistence that provide the foundation for environmental and social justice movements writ large.” From Publisher’s Website.